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Inzululwazi ye-Aerospace kunye neteknoloji

Inzululwazi ye-Aerospace kunye neteknoloji

I-alloy yobushushu obuphezulu ikwabizwa ngokuba yi-alloy yamandla obushushu.Ngokwesakhiwo se-matrix, izinto eziphathekayo zinokuhlulwa zibe ngamacandelo amathathu: i-iron-based nickel-based and chromium-based.Ngokwemo yemveliso, inokwahlulwa ibe yi-superalloy egogekileyo kunye ne-cast superalloy.

Yimathiriyeli ekrwada eyimfuneko kwibala le-aerospace.Yimathiriyeli ephambili yenxalenye yobushushu obuphezulu be-aerospace kunye neenjini zokwenza i-aviation.Isetyenziselwa ikakhulu ukwenza igumbi lokutsha, i-injini ye-injini, i-blade yesikhokelo, i-compressor kunye nediski ye-turbine, i-turbine case kunye nezinye iindawo.Uluhlu lobushushu benkonzo yi-600 ℃ - 1200 ℃.Uxinzelelo kunye neemeko zokusingqongileyo ziyahluka kunye neendawo ezisetyenzisiweyo.Kukho iimfuno eziqinileyo zomatshini, iipropati zomzimba kunye neekhemikhali ze-alloy.Yinto ethatha isigqibo sokusebenza, ukuthembeka kunye nobomi be-injini.Ke ngoko, i-superalloy yenye yeeprojekthi zophando eziphambili kwiinkalo ze-aerospace kunye nokhuselo lwelizwe kumazwe aphuhlileyo.
Usetyenziso oluphambili lwe-superalloy zezi:

1. I-alloy yobushushu obuphezulu kwigumbi lokutsha

Igumbi lokutsha (ekwabizwa ngokuba ityhubhu yedangatye) ye-injini ye-injini ye-injini ye-aviation yenye yezinto eziphambili zobushushu obuphezulu.Ekubeni i-atomization yamafutha, ukuxuba i-oyile kunye negesi kunye nezinye iinkqubo zenziwa kwigumbi lokutsha, ubushushu obuphezulu kwigumbi lokutsha bunokufikelela kwi-1500 ℃ - 2000 ℃, kwaye ubushushu bodonga kwigumbi lokutsha linokufikelela kwi-1100 ℃.Ngexesha elifanayo, ikwathwala uxinzelelo lwe-thermal kunye noxinzelelo lwegesi.Uninzi lwee-injini ezinomlinganiselo ophezulu wokutyhala/ubunzima zisebenzisa amagumbi okutsha anonyaka, anobude obufutshane kunye nomthamo omkhulu wobushushu.Ubushushu obuphezulu kwigumbi lokutsha bufikelela kwi-2000 ℃, kwaye ubushushu bodonga bufikelela kwi-1150 ℃ emva kwefilimu yegesi okanye ukupholisa umphunga.Iqondo lokushisa elikhulu phakathi kwamacandelo ahlukeneyo liya kuvelisa uxinzelelo lwe-thermal, oluya kunyuka kwaye lwehle ngokukhawuleza xa imeko yokusebenza itshintsha.Izinto eziphathekayo ziya kuba phantsi kokutshatyalaliswa kwe-thermal kunye nomthwalo wokukhathala kwe-thermal, kwaye kuya kubakho ukuphazamiseka, ukuqhekeka kunye nezinye iimpazamo.Ngokuqhelekileyo, igumbi lokutsha lenziwe nge-alloy sheet, kwaye iimfuno zobugcisa zishwankathelwa ngolu hlobo lulandelayo ngokwemiqathango yenkonzo yamacandelo athile: inokumelana ne-oxidation ethile kunye nokuchasana kwe-corrosion yegesi phantsi kweemeko zokusebenzisa i-alloy ephezulu yokushisa kunye negesi;Inamandla athile angoko nangoko kunye nokunyamezela, ukusebenza kokudinwa kwe-thermal kunye ne-coefficient yokwandisa okuphantsi;Ineplastiki eyaneleyo kunye nekhono le-weld ukuqinisekisa ukusetyenzwa, ukwenza kunye nokudibanisa;Inozinzo oluhle lombutho phantsi komjikelo we-thermal ukuqinisekisa ukusebenza okuthembekileyo ngaphakathi kobomi benkonzo.

a.I-MA956 i-alloy i-laminate ene-porous
Kwinqanaba lokuqala, i-laminate ene-porous yenziwe nge-alloy sheet ye-HS-188 nge-diffusion bonding emva kokufotwa, i-etched, i-grooved kunye ne-punch.Umaleko wangaphakathi unokwenziwa ube ngumjelo ofanelekileyo wokupholisa ngokweemfuno zoyilo.Esi sakhiwo sokupholisa sidinga kuphela i-30% yegesi yokupholisa yokupholisa ifilimu yemveli, enokuphucula ukusebenza kakuhle komjikelo we-injini, ukunciphisa ubushushu obubambekayo besixhobo segumbi lokutsha, ukunciphisa ubunzima, kunye nokunyusa ubunzima bokutyhala. umlinganiselo.Okwangoku, kusafuneka kugqobhozwe itekhnoloji engundoqo ngaphambi kokuba isetyenziswe ngokubonakalayo.I-laminate ene-porous eyenziwe nge-MA956 sisizukulwana esitsha segumbi lokutsha eliziswa yi-United States, elinokusetyenziswa kwi-1300 ℃.

b.Ukusetyenziswa kwee-ceramic composites kwigumbi lokutsha
I-United States iqalile ukuqinisekisa ukuba kunokwenzeka ukusebenzisa i-ceramics kwii-injini zegesi ukususela ngo-1971. Ngo-1983, amaqela athile abandakanyeka kuphuhliso lwemathiriyeli ephucukileyo e-United States aye aqulunqa uluhlu lwezalathisi zokusebenza kwiiinjini zegesi ezisetyenziswa kwiinqwelomoya eziphambili.Ezi zalathi zezi: nyusa iqondo lobushushu bokungena kwiinjini yomoya ukuya kuma-2200 ℃;Sebenza phantsi kwemeko yokutsha yokubala kweekhemikhali;Ukunciphisa ubuninzi obusetyenzisiweyo kula macandelo ukusuka kwi-8g / cm3 ukuya kwi-5g / cm3;Rhoxisa ukupholisa amalungu.Ukuze kuhlangatyezwane nezi mfuno, izinto ezifundwayo ziquka igraphite, i-metal matrix, i-ceramic matrix composites kunye ne-intermetallic compounds ngaphezu kwesigaba esisodwa se-ceramics.Iicomposites zeCeramic matrix (CMC) zineenzuzo zilandelayo:
I-coefficient yokwandiswa kwezinto ze-ceramic incinci kakhulu kune-alloy-based alloy, kwaye i-coefficient ilula ukuyikhupha.Ukwenza i-ceramic composites kunye nentsimbi ephakathi evakalelwayo kunokoyisa i-defect of flaking, eyindlela yophuhliso lwezixhobo zegumbi lokutsha.Esi sixhobo singasetyenziswa nge-10% - 20% yomoya opholisayo, kwaye iqondo lobushushu lokugquma kwentsimbi ngasemva limalunga nama-800 ℃ kuphela, kwaye iqondo lobushushu elithwele ubushushu lisezantsi kakhulu kunolo lokupholisa okungafaniyo kunye nokupholisa ifilimu.I-Cast superalloy B1900 + ithayile yokukhusela i-ceramic isetyenziswa kwi-injini ye-V2500, kwaye isalathiso sophuhliso kukubuyisela i-B1900 (nge-ceramic coating) nge-SiC-based composite okanye i-anti-oxidation ye-C / C edibeneyo.I-Ceramic matrix composite yimathiriyeli yophuhliso lwegumbi lokutsha le-injini kunye ne-thrust weight ratio ye-15-20, kwaye ubushushu benkonzo yayo yi-1538 ℃ - 1650 ℃.Isetyenziselwa ityhubhu yedangatye, udonga oludadayo kunye ne-afterburner.

2. I-alloy yobushushu obuphezulu kwi-turbine

Iblade ye-injini ye-Aero-injini yenye yezinto ezithwala owona mthwalo unzima wobushushu kunye neyona ndawo imbi yokusebenza kwi-injini yomoya.Kufuneka ithwale uxinzelelo olukhulu kakhulu kwaye olunzima phantsi kobushushu obuphezulu, ngoko ke iimfuno zayo zezinto eziphathekayo zingqongqo kakhulu.I-superalloys yeencakuba ze-injini ye-aero-injini zohlulwe zibe:

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a.I-alloy yobushushu obuphezulu kwisikhokelo
I-deflector yenye yamacandelo e-injini yomoya achatshazelwa kakhulu bubushushu.Xa ukutsha okungalinganiyo kwenzeka kwigumbi lokutsha, umthwalo wokufudumeza kwinqanaba lokuqala lesikhokelo sikhulu, esona sizathu siphambili somonakalo wesikhokelo.Ubushushu benkonzo yayo bumalunga ne-100 ℃ ngaphezulu kunolo lweblade yeinjini yomoya.Umahluko kukuba iindawo ezimileyo azikho phantsi komthwalo womatshini.Ngokuqhelekileyo, kulula ukubangela uxinzelelo lwe-thermal, ukuphazamiseka, ukukhathala kwe-thermal crack kunye nokutshisa kwendawo okubangelwa utshintsho olukhawulezayo lobushushu.Isalathiso se-vane alloy siya kuba nezi zinto zilandelayo: amandla okushisa aphezulu okwaneleyo, ukusebenza ngokusisigxina kunye nokusebenza kakuhle kokudinwa kwe-thermal, ukuxhathisa okuphezulu kwe-oxidation kunye nokusebenza kwe-thermal corrosion, uxinzelelo lwe-thermal kunye nokumelana nokungcangcazela, ukugoba ukuguqa, ukugoba ukugoba, inkqubo yokubunjwa kakuhle kunye ne-weldability, kunye nokusebenza kokukhusela i-coating.
Okwangoku, uninzi lweenjini eziphucukileyo ezinomlinganiselo ophezulu wokutyhala/ubunzima zisebenzisa iiblade ezingenanto, kwaye kukhethwe umkhombandlela kunye nekristale enye esekwe kwi-nickel superalloys.I-injini ene-high thrust-weight ratio inobushushu obuphezulu be-1650 ℃ - 1930 ℃ kwaye kufuneka ikhuselwe ngokugquma kwe-thermal insulation.Ukushisa kwenkonzo ye-alloy ye-blade phantsi kokupholisa kunye neemeko zokukhusela i-coating ingaphezulu kwe-1100 ℃, ebeka phambili iimfuno ezintsha kunye neziphezulu kwiindleko zoxinzelelo lweqondo lokushisa kwisixhobo sesikhokelo kwixesha elizayo.

b.Iisuphaloyi zeencakuba ze-iturbine
I-injini ye-injini ye-injini ye-aero-injini zezona nxalenye zingundoqo ezithwala ubushushu ezijikelezayo.Ubushushu babo bokusebenza bungama-50 ℃ - 100 ℃ ngaphantsi kweencakuba zesikhokelo.Bathwele uxinzelelo olukhulu lwe-centrifugal, uxinzelelo lokungcangcazela, uxinzelelo lobushushu, ukubethwa komoya kunye nezinye iziphumo xa ujikeleza, kwaye iimeko zokusebenza zimbi.Ubomi benkonzo yamacandelo ashushu enjini ene-high thrust/weight ratio ingaphezulu kwe-2000h.Ke ngoko, i-alloy blade ye-turbine blade iya kuba nokuchasa okuphezulu kunye nokugqabhuka kwiqondo lobushushu benkonzo, iipropathi ezilungileyo eziphezulu kunye neziphakathi zobushushu obubanzi, njengokudinwa komjikelo ophezulu kunye nophantsi, ukukhathala okubandayo kunye nobushushu, iplastiki eyaneleyo kunye nokuqina kwempembelelo, kunye novelwano lwenotshi;Ukumelana ne-oxidation ephezulu kunye nokumelana nokugqwala;Ukuqhuba kakuhle kwe-thermal kunye ne-coefficient ephantsi yokwandiswa komgca;Ukusebenza kakuhle kwenkqubo yokuphosa;Uzinzo olude lwesakhiwo, akukho nqanaba lemvula ye-TCP kwiqondo lokushisa lenkonzo.I-alloy esetyenzisiweyo ihamba ngezigaba ezine;Ukusetyenziswa kwe-alloy ephosakeleyo kuquka i-GH4033, GH4143, GH4118, njl.Ukusetyenziswa kwe-alloy ye-alloy ibandakanya i-K403, i-K417, i-K418, i-K405, i-directionally solidified gold DZ4, i-DZ22, i-crystal crystal alloy DD3, i-DD8, i-PW1484, njl. Okwangoku, iphuhliswe kwisizukulwana sesithathu se-crystal alloys enye.Ingxubevange yekristale enye yaseTshayina iDD3 kunye neDD8 ngokulandelelana zisetyenziswa kwiiinjini zomoya zaseTshayina, iinjini ze-turbofan, iihelikopta kunye neenjini zeenqanawa.

3. I-alloy yobushushu obuphezulu kwidiski ye-turbine

Idiski ye-turbine yeyona icinezelweyo kakhulu inxenye ye-injini ye-turbine.Ubushushu obusebenzayo bevili le-injini kunye ne-thrust weight ratio ye-8 kunye ne-10 ifikelela kwi-650 ℃ kunye ne-750 ℃, kunye nobushushu beziko lamavili malunga ne-300 ℃, kunye nokwahlukana okukhulu kobushushu.Ngexesha lokujikeleza okuqhelekileyo, iqhuba i-blade ukuba ijikeleze ngesantya esiphezulu kwaye ithwele amandla amakhulu e-centrifugal, uxinzelelo lwe-thermal kunye noxinzelelo lwe-vibration.Isiqalo ngasinye kunye nokumisa ngumjikelo, iziko lamavili.Umqala, umzantsi wegroove kunye nomphetho zonke zinoxinzelelo olwahlukeneyo oludibeneyo.I-alloy iyadingeka ukuba ibe namandla aphezulu esivuno, ukuqina kwempembelelo kunye nokungabikho kwe-notch sensitivity kwiqondo lokushisa lenkonzo;I-coefficient yokwandiswa komgca ophantsi;I-oxidation ethile kunye nokuxhathisa ukubola;Ukusebenza kakuhle kokusika.

4. I-Aerospace superalloy

I-superalloy kwi-injini ye-rocket ye-liquid isetyenziswe njengephaneli yokufaka i-fuel injector yegumbi lokutsha kwigumbi lokuphosa;Ingqiniba yempompo ye-turbine, i-flange, i-graphite i-rudder fastener, njl. njl. I-alloy yobushushu obuphezulu kwi-injini ye-rocket ye-rocket isetyenziswa njengephaneli yesitofu segumbi lamafutha kwi-thrust room;I-Turbine pump elbow, i-flange, i-graphite i-rudder fastener, njl. njl. I-GH4169 isetyenziswa njengesixhobo se-turbine rotor, i-shaft, i-shaft sleeve, i-fastener kunye nezinye iindawo ezibalulekileyo zokuthwala.

Iimathiriyeli ze-injini ye-injini ye-rocket engamanzi yaseMelika ikakhulu ibandakanya umbhobho wokuthatha, iblade yomoya kunye nediski.I-GH1131 i-alloy isetyenziswa kakhulu e-China, kwaye i-turbine blade ixhomekeke kubushushu obusebenzayo.I-Inconel x, i-Alloy713c, i-Astroloy kunye ne-Mar-M246 kufuneka isetyenziswe ngokulandelelanayo;Izinto zediski zevili ziquka i-Inconel 718, i-Waspaloy, njl. I-GH4169 kunye ne-GH4141 ii-turbines ezidibeneyo zisetyenziswa kakhulu, kwaye i-GH2038A isetyenziselwa i-injini ye-injini.